CATEGORIES
THE ANSWERS TO YOUR QUESTIONS

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

To help you find all the answers to your questions, we have made a compilation of all frequently asked questions. If you have any other questions or think an important question is missing, please don’t hesitate to contact us! Together we will find the solution!

WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW

GENERAL QUESTIONS

Tap water conditioner / chlorine / heavy metal & slime coat protection generally do not interfere much with eSHa products.

 

However, these products contain chemicals which are designed to attack, bind or coat other molecules. When your tap water is clean or if you overdose the tap safe, these chemicals build up and eagerly wait to react and then can reduce or even neutralize eSHa products.

There are several methods to avoiding the issue of adding too much conditioner to your tap water in order to get rid of chlorine and chloramine. With the eSHa Aqua-Quick-Test you can easily measure the chlor(am)ine level in your tap water. If chlor(am)ine is present, you can determine the minimum level of tap water conditioner you need to remove the chlor(am)ine.

 

1. The simple method to rid your tap water of chlorine/chloramine:

  • Take a reliable test or test strip, such as the eSHa Aqua-Quick-Test.
  • Measure if you have any chlor(am)ine in your tap water.
  • Examine the minimum amount of necessary water conditioner to rid your tap water of chlor(am)ine. For example, add 10% of the amount of conditioner that is instructed and measure the chlor(am)ine level. If still present, try 20% etc. etc. until you have a zero reading of chlor(am)ine.
  • Afterwards, only use that amount of conditioner actually needed only for your newly added tap water.

2. Use a bucket with an air stone and leave your tap water standing overnight (12 to 24 hours).

3. Another method is to filter your tap water using active carbon, before adding it to your tank.

4. Another method is Osmose filtration (Reverse Osmosis Membranes), but then you will have to add minerals to your tap water before adding it to your aquarium.

Tap water should legally contain no harmful concentration of heavy metals. Using normal tankless water heaters and / or boilers there will be no harmful concentration of heavy metals, but it can never hurt to let your tap run for a few minutes.

A quarantine procedure is for fish without disease symptoms, sick fish should first be treated for the disease they have. When using eSHa products with two-week quarantine, we recommend the following steps:

 

1. Use ½ a dose of eSHa 2000 and ½ a dose of EXIT for three days: this will eliminate microscopic protozoa, bacteria and fungi.

2. Then use eSHa-ndx and wait for 24 hours: this will kill nematodes (= roundworms).

3. After 24 hours of dosing eSHa -ndx, do a water change.

4. Then treat with eSHa gdex for three days. After day 5 of adding eSHa gdex, do a water change: this will kill flatworms.

5. After that, you can start with eSHa alx combined with eSHa OPTIMA: eSHa alx will kill parasitic crustaceans like Argulus and eSHa OPTIMA will give you optimal water conditions.

 

eSHa OPTIMA: use 4 drops per day per 100 litres and for sensitive fish (discus fish / stingray fish) you can use 20 drops per 100 litres on the first day. After that you can use 4 drops per day per 100 litres.

  • For fish bought in aquarium shops, step 1 + eSHa OPTIMA is sufficient.
  • For fish caught in the wild, please follow step 1 to 5 for the quarantine procedure.
FUNGUS, FINROT & BACTERIA TREATMENT
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

eSHa 2000 treats primary and secondary fungal infections, bacterial skin infections and skin / gill parasites. An added advantage is its ability to assist wound healing and to protect the skin layer. eSHa 2000’s wide range action means the danger of choosing the wrong treatment is virtually eliminated.

A list of specific disease organisms and conditions that eSHa 2000 treats:

  • Shimmying disease: also called ‘shimmies’. The fish no longer has proper control of its nerves and muscles;
  • Protozoan parasites: a wide range of illnesses often caused by any number of microscopic external protozoan parasites;
  • Fungus: most likely to be fungal species such as Saprolegnia and Achlya;
  • Ulcers or wounds: sustained from vigorous feeding / breeding. Likely to be infected with secondary infection such as ‘fungus’ if left untreated;
  • Mouth fungus: the common term for a bacterium called flexibacter;
  • Dropsy: the common name for a combined viral and/or bacterial infection;
  • Gill problems: can be a symptom of infection from certain fungi or worms, or poor water quality (eSHa 2000 can not remedy water quality problems);
  • Finrot: sustained from vigorous feeding / breeding. Likely to be infected with secondary infection such as ‘fungus’ if left untreated;
  • Neon tetra disease: although common on neon tetras this disease can affect other fish species particularly barbs and danios. Fish can carry the parasite and not become infected. eSHa 2000 blocks neon tetra disease.


eSHa 2000’s broad range of activity is effective against over eighteen disease organisms and conditions. However, it will not cure every ailment your fish may encounter.

  • You can use eSHa 2000 to treat tropical and coldwater fish
  • eSHa 2000 is very well tolerated by plants and filters

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of eSHa 2000. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
Overdosing is not recommended, however, eSHa 2000 usually remains non-toxic (under normal conditions) if more than the recommended dose is accidentally added.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using eSHa 2000. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a standard 3 day dose of eSHa 2000. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of eSHa 2000 to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).


Preventive dosage

Use only day one of the standard dose (25 drops per 100 litres) to prevent problems with new fish and plants. Use this same dosage when transporting fish to prevent problems caused by damage due to capture, stress and trauma.

For more about information about the quarantine procedure, refer to our F.A.Q.: QUARANTINE PROCEDURE.

Extra heavy dosage
Double the standard three day dose for very ill fish, for prevention of egg mold and for fast initial results. In severe cases, the secondary dose (days 2 / 3) may be continued for a number of days. Soft water dosage in ‘soft’ water (low carbonates) increases the standard dosage. If GH is less than 4°dGH, double the daily standard dosage.

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

eSHa 2000 can be used in conjunction with:

  • EXIT: gives a very broad range of treatment! EXIT treats all ‘spot’ (Ich) causing parasitic species and ‘velvet’ disease. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa 2000 and EXIT together.
  • eSHa gdex: it is a highly synergetic combination, just like eSHa 2000 and EXIT. eSHa gdex works against skin and gill flukes and tapeworms. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa 2000 and eSHa gdex together.
  • eSHa alx: works against parasitic species of Crustacea. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa 2000 and eSHa alx together.

Yes! eSHa 2000 has several other uses:

As a disinfectant for fish, plants and equipment before they are added to your aquarium
Treat your whole aquarium with a standard dose of eSHa 2000 (25 drops per 100 litres) after the newcomers are introduced.

Note: visibly ill newcomers should be held in quarantine. For more about information about the quarantine procedure, refer to our F.A.Q.: QUARANTINE PROCEDURE.

To help hatch eggs and raise fry
A standard 3 day dose of eSHa 2000 helps prevent the eggs catching fungus and helps protect the fry after they have hatched. Success rate is improved.

To treat successive infection
eSHa 2000 can be used again if fish get infected with another disease after recovering from a previous condition or illness. A successive infection can indicate other problems such as poor water quality. Commonly, fish get infected with ’white spot’ disease, which takes advantage of the weakened immune system. eSHa 2000 can be safely used in combination with EXIT (effective against many spot diseases), providing an effective tool to combat this infection.

ANTI WHITESPOT TREATMENT
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For freshwater ornamental fish only;
  • This product may discolour the water;
  • This product may stain silicone;
  • Keep away from eyes, cuts and sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

EXIT treats all ‘spot’ (Ich) causing parasitic species. EXIT distinguishes itself from other products by also treating ‘velvet’ disease as well as ‘Ich’ parasites. This is an advantage because the symptoms for both diseases are often confused. Therefore, EXIT eliminates the danger of choosing the wrong treatment.

A list of specific diseases that EXIT treats:

  • White spot disease (Ichthyophthirius): This is one of the most common problems experienced by aquarists. Virtually all freshwater fishes are affected.
  • Velvet disease (Oodinium): Velvet is fatal for fry. This disease is less common than ‘white spot’, but the symptoms are often confused. Because EXIT treats white spot and velvet disease, the danger of choosing the wrong treatment is eliminated.
  • You can use EXIT to treat tropical and coldwater fish
  • EXIT poses no threat to plants or filters when dosed correctly


EXIT gives excellent results, especially with tropical fish.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of EXIT. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using EXIT.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using EXIT. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a standard 3 day dose of EXIT. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of EXIT to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

EXIT can be used in conjunction with:

  • eSHa 2000: gives a very broad range of treatment! Treats primary and secondary fungal infections bacterial skin infections and skin / gill parasites. There is no need to halve the dosage when using EXIT and eSHa 2000 together.
  • eSHa alx: works against parasitic species of Crustacea. There is no need to halve the dosage when using EXIT and eSHa alx together.

Yes, care should be taken when diagnosing white spot symptoms. This is because some fish, particularly clown loach, can display white spots as a result of poor water quality, not as a result of the parasitic infection. Also, some male fishes, particularly goldfish, display white spots on the gills and pectoral fins at breeding time. These ‘tubercles’ are not to be confused with white spot parasites.

EXIT works by using a unique double action method to combat two different types of parasites, both the young parasites swimming in the water as well as those ‘maturing’ on your fish. EXIT does not need any special precautions such as separate tanks, raising of temperature or water renewal. It is biodegradable and even after repeated use, no remaining elements are left in the aquarium and no residues are left on the fish. EXIT can be used with very sensitive fish (such as chocolate gouramis) and very young fish due to its carefully balanced composition. Unlike many other treatments, EXIT does not contain Formaldehyde, which can be damaging to sensitive fish.

The white spot parasites are single celled and are highly contagious when they are young and in the ‘free-swimming’ stage (tomites). At this stage they are not visible to the naked eye. They can quickly enter the outer slime coating (mucous membrane) of a new host fish and then ‘mature’ there for up to 2-3 weeks (maturity occurs quicker in tropical temperatures). When they have matured, they breakthrough this slime layer and drop to the bottom of the aquarium, attaching to a solid surface. Here they form an encapsulated cyst, inside of which the single cell divides to form 200-1200 new tomites. The cyst then breaks, releasing the tomites into the water where they must quickly find a new host to begin the process over again. It is also possible that these parasites remain dormant and wait until your fish is in a weakened condition, before striking. Because of the enormous reproductive capacity of these parasites and the high stocking levels often seen in aquariums, just a few can create an epidemic in a very short space of time. It is important to respond quickly to the warning signals.

DISCUS DISEASE TREATMENT
  • Contains copper, do not overdose!
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For freshwater ornamental fish only;
  • This product may discolour the water;
  • Keep away from eyes, cuts and sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

There are a number of symptoms your discus, angelfish or cichlids may show when contaminated with the ‘hole-in-the-head’ causing hexamita parasite. Not all symptoms will be visible.

The first signs of infection

  • The infected fish is cast out or separates itself from the group.


Symptoms of the second stage of infection

  • Loss of appetite;
  • Dull eyes;
  • Darkening of colour of the skin;
  • Apprehensive behaviour;
  • Slow reactions;
  • White stringy faeces (sometimes).


Symptoms of the final stages of infection

  • Enlarged sensory pores on the head that become filled with a whitish pus;
  • Tubular skin eruptions (whitish pus substance emerges from lesions which can be mistaken for worms);
  • Rapidly spreading skin decay;
  • Emancipation and distended body;
  • Lesions near the head, lateral line and at base of fins;
  • Thin body with a tucked in abdomen;
  • Small holes in foreheads and body;
  • ‘Flaky’ skin.


It is important to note the sensory pores are not always affected and hence if this visible sign is not present, then a hexamita infection can go unnoticed. Death can occur by infection in the internal organs as the parasite can spread to them from the intestine where it often resides. Traditional treatment is done with medicated food, to reach to the intestine where most hexamita infections reside. However, fish tend to lose their appetite when infected, so it can be hard to treat the fish in this manner. HEXAMITA solves your problem!

HEXAMITA is specially formulated for use with discus and cichlids (and is especially good with discus and angelfish).

  • You can use HEXAMITA to treat tropical and coldwater fish.
  • HEXAMITA is well tolerated by plants and filters.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of HEXAMITA. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using HEXAMITA.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using HEXAMITA. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a standard 3 day dose of HEXAMITA. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of HEXAMITA to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

HEXAMITA can be used in conjunction with:

  • EXIT: treats all ‘spot’ (Ich) causing parasitic species and ‘velvet’ disease. There is no need to halve the dosage when using HEXAMITA and EXIT together.

The diseases occurs mainly in discus and cichlid species, but it can affect other species such as gouramis. The disease is caused by a microscopic parasite called hexamita (often referred to as Octomitus and Spironucleus). The disease is contagious and infectious. Many claim that the disease is incurable.

Most discus and cichlids carry the hexamita causing parasite, but usually, under normal conditions, it will not develop into a harmful infection. However, if the immune system of the fish is weakened, due to bad water quality, bad nutrition, stress causing occurrences such as transportation etc., problems can develop.

The introduction of new fish into the aquarium can also cause problems, as different parasites to which the existing fish have no resistance, are brought into the same environment. It is advised not to wait until your fish show symptoms of infection (such as refusing food), so keep a constant eye on your fish.

HEXAMITA can be used to successfully combat a wide range of parasites that are responsible for a wide range of diseases and conditions. Diseases that affect discus are usually the same as those that affect other tropical fish.

 

Most commonly are gill flukes, intestinal disorders and sliminess of the skin. HEXAMITA successfully treats these disorders as well as most other common fish diseases including fungus, finrot and dropsy. HEXAMITA is a complete treatment for most diseases your discus and other cichlids will encounter.

 

If your fish suffer from ‘hole-in-the-head’ disease it can leave them weakened and susceptible to secondary infections. Because HEXAMITA treats most common disorders in addition to ‘hole-in-the-head disease’, the danger of a secondary infection is removed.

AGAINST SKIN FLUKES, GILL FLUKES AND TAPEWORMS
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

eSHa gdex treats skin and gill flukes (Monogenea, like Gyrodactylus sp. and Dactylogyrus sp.) and tapeworms (Cestoda).

There are a few noticeable symptoms of skin and gill flukes and tapeworms:

  • Excessive mucus secretion: clamped fins which can become ragged and sore;
  • Rubbing its whole body against plants, decoration, rock and gravel: rubbing the head or near the gill plates;
  • In advanced stages, white or yellow spots or lesions are visible on the skin (due to secondary infection);
  • Small red or bloody skin patches along the body: discolorations;
  • Irregular breathing / breathing through only one of the gills / spreading the gills wide open / slow swimming or hovering / pale and swollen gills that can extend beyond the gill plates: your fish remain listless and lethargic and will be swimming at the surface in advanced stages;
  • The fish quickly loses weight, despite the normal quantity of food: even when the amount of food is increased, the fish does not gain weight and looks emaciated.


Not all fish have the symptoms. Often the symptoms are limited to one single fish species or to related fish species. Skin and gill flukes are practically invisible to the eye, but can be made visible under a microscope with a relatively low magnification (10-200x). Skin and gill flukes are generally fish species-specific, but they can be transferred to other fishes, through fishnets and plants or through water.

  • You can use eSHa gdex to treat tropical and coldwater fish. 
  • eSHa gdex can be used with marine fish in quarantaine tanks.
  • eSHa gdex is well tolerated by plants and filters.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of eSHa gdex. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using eSHa gdex.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using eSHa gdex. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a 5 day treatment plan of eSHa gdex. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of eSHa gdex to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (100 drops = 3.2 ml).

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

eSHa gdex can be used in conjunction with:

  • eSHa 2000: treats primary and secondary fungal infections bacterial skin infections and skin / gill parasites. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa gdex and eSHa 2000 together.
  • eSHa alx: works against parasitic species of Crustacea. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa gdex and eSHa alx together.
AGAINST PARASITIC NEMATODES
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish. Fin clamping can indicate the onset of a disease.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

eSHa -ndx works against parasitic nematodes like Camallanus, Capillaria, Pseudocapillaria, Eustrongylides, Oxyuris et al. Roundworms are generally found in the intestines of the fish and some can be visible to the eye.

There are a few noticeable symptoms of skin and gill flukes and tapeworms:

  • The fish quickly loses weight, despite the normal quantity of food: even when the amount of food is increased, the fish does not gain weight and looks emaciated;
  • The fish has reduced appetite;
  • Visible protruding worms from the anus.
  • You can use eSHa -ndx to treat freshwater and marine aquariums.
  • eSHa -ndx is well tolerated by plants and filters.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of eSHa -ndx. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using eSHa -ndx.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using eSHa -ndx. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, perform a 1 day dosage of eSHa -ndx. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of eSHa -ndx to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (100 drops = 4.4 ml).
  3. After 24 hours perform a  50% water change. As an alternative you can filter over fresh activated caarbon and change 20% of the water.


In case of oviparous nematodes, repeat the treatment 14 days after the first dosage to eradicate the hatched eggs. In special cases treatment can be repeated after another 2 weeks.

For freshwater en marine aquaria
Treat marine fish in a quarantine aquarium and turn off the skimmer for the first 4 hours and turn off the UV for the first 24 hours.

In cases with little or no improvement a 50% water change is recommended without dechlorinators or oxidisers, after which the treatment can be repeated. If any unknown complication occurs immediatelyeither transfer the fish to another aquarium or do a partial water change and / or filter over fresh activated carbon and contact your expert retailer.

If you want to use another treatment straight after using eSHa -ndx, you can remove all components by filtering over fresh activated carbon or perform a major water change.

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using eSHa -ndx.

AGAINST PARASITIC CRUSTACEANS
  • Will kill shrimp and crayfish!
  • You should be careful with lower animals like corals, anemones, sea urchins, snails, clams et al. When present, remove them from the aquarium or pond before treatment or treat the fish in a quarantine tank;
  • Observe the aquarium well during treatment and, in case of complications, filter over fresh activated carbon first and then perform a water change;
  • May be harmful to aquatic invertebrates;
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease, like swollenness, emaciation or reduced appetite.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease. Parasitic crustaceans are generally visible with the naked eye.

eSHa alx is a veterinary medicine for ornamental fish against parasitic species of Crustacea (Maxillopoda), such as Argulus (carp lice), Lernaea (anchor worm), Ergasilus (gill lice), Salmincola (gill lice), etc. The parasitic Crustacea occur on and in the skin of fish and on the gills.

There are a few noticeable symptoms of skin and gill flukes and tapeworms:

  • Trying to jump out of the aquarium/pond;
  • Scraping the entire body along stones and the bottom;
  • Visible areas where parasites have bitten (which subsequently become white as the skin dies);
  • Pale gills;
  • Listless behaviour;
  • Skittishness;
  • Weight loss; separating from the group;
  • Not eating.
  • eSHa alx is well tolerated by ornamental fish in freshwater aquaria and ponds and in marine aquaria.
  • eSHa alx is well tolerated by plants and filters.
  • You should be careful with lower animals like corals, anemones, sea urchins, snails, clams et al. When present, remove them from the aquarium or pond before treatment or treat the fish in a quarantine tank.
  • Observe the aquarium well during treatment and, in case of complications, filter over fresh activated carbon first and then perform a water change.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of eSHa alx. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using eSHa alx.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using eSHa alx. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

In cases with little or no improvement a 50% water change is recommended without dechlorinators or oxidisers, after which the treatment can be repeated. If any unknown complication occurs immediatelyeither transfer the fish to another aquarium or do a partial water change and / or filter over fresh activated carbon and contact your expert retailer.

If you want to use another treatment straight after using eSHa -alx, you can remove all components by filtering over fresh activated carbon or perform a major water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, perform a 2 day dosage of eSHa alx over a 3 week period: dose on day 1, then on day 7 perform a 20% – 50% water change and clean the bottom of your aquarium. Repeat this on day 14: dose the calculated dosage and perform a 20% – 50% water change and bottom cleaning on day 21. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of eSHa alx to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette.

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

eSHa alx can be used in conjunction with:

  • eSHa 2000: treats primary and secondary fungal infections bacterial skin infections and skin / gill parasites. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa alx and eSHa 2000 together.
  • EXIT: treats all ‘spot’ (Ich) causing parasitic species and ‘velvet’ disease. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa alx and EXIT together.
  • eSHa gdex: works against skin and gill flukes and tapeworms. There is no need to halve the dosage when using eSHa alx and eSHa gdex together.

Carp lice (Argulus)
This is a greenish, transparent, round crustacean with black dots across its entire body. It can become up to 8 mm in size, uses two suction cups to attach itself and a sting to pierce the skin of the fish. Adult carp lice mate on the body of a fish after which the female leaves and deposits approx. 300 eggs in the aquarium/pond, after which she dies. Depending on the temperature, the eggs hatch after between 10 days and a few months. The young are free-swimming and after a number of moults they search for a host. When a host is found, they develop into an adult carp louse in approximately two months and are then sexually mature. The cycle is therefore strongly dependent on temperature. Young fish can be killed by a single sting.

Anchor worms (Lernaea), gill lice (Ergasilus & Salmincola)
Only the female is parasitic, and uses nutrients and blood taken from the body of the fish to develop her eggs. The eggs are in two egg sacs located at the tail end of the parasite. When the eggs are ripe the sacs fall off. The young from these eggs are free-swimming whilst they develop into mature parasites and will then look for a partner. After mating the female searches for a fish and the cycle starts again.

Anchor worms (Lernaea)
An anchor worm is a long string protruding from the fish with two ‘tails’ (the egg sacs). Anchor worms can be up to 2 cm long. They can attach anywhere on the body of a fish but mostly appear on the underside. For example at the base of the tail fin or between the gill and pectoral fin.

Gill lice (Ergasilus & Salmicola)
These parasites often occur on the gills but also on the gill covers, fins and in the mouth. The parasites can be seen with the naked eye (± 2 mm) and are clearly visible with a magnifying glass. The fish lose weight, become weak and
listless, and the gills become pale due to anemia.

WIDE RANGE MARINE TREATMENT (INVERT)
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

A list of specific disease organisms and conditions that OODINEX treats:

  • Oodinium: fine whitish / yellow spots or ‘salt and pepper’ coating can be seen, especially on the fins. The spots can give a ‘hazy gold’ appearance. Fish may ‘rub and scratch’ against hard objects and show rapid gill movement (difficulty breathing). Slime may cover the body. This is common for tangs and clownfish;
  • Marine whitespot: white spots on the body and fins of your fish. Your fish may try to ‘rub and scratch’ against hard objects such as aquarium decor;
  • Fungus: white or slightly off-white fluffy growths on the fins and body of your fish. Often found on wounds or broken skin, where the mucus layer has been broken, a classic secondary infection;
  • Finrot: the fins of your fish appear ragged and sore, frayed or torn;
  • Dropsy: your fish appear swollen with scales / fins protruding from the skin. Red areas often visible at the base of raised scales. Bases of fins and around anus appears red or bloodshot. Eyes may protrude from body;
  • Wasting disease: symptoms can include some or all of the following: weight loss, ulcers, popeye, listlessness, swollen belly, sore skin patches, loss of appetite, ‘wasted’ appearance.


Some diseases are very difficult to diagnose or can be diagnosed incorrectly. For example, fungus may result from another problem such as finrot. Therefore, it is important to treat the root of the problem (finrot) as well as the resulting secondary infection (fungus). As OODINEX treats many diseases you have a very good chance of treating the root problem and improving your fish’s health. In some cases it is more effective to keep an eye out for a variety of symptoms which fish tend to exhibit when they are infected.

The symptoms

  • Shaking of the head;
  • Lying near the water surface;
  • Shimmying (body rocking);
  • Cloudy eyes;
  • Slimy skin / red skin inflammations;
  • Skin patchiness / discolouration;
  • Bloody patches / spots;
  • Open wounds / bleeding skin;
  • Rough scales / scale loss;
  • Mucus patches;
  • Breathing difficulty;
  • Rapid gill movement.


OODINEX treats a wide range of infections characterised by the above symptoms. These infections are often very contagious and can easily spread to healthy fish. The sooner you treat your fish, the better their chance of recovery.

  • You can use OODINEX to treat all marine fish. 
  • Do not use OODINEX with tropical or coldwater fish!

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of OODINEX. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using OODINEX.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using OODINEX. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a standard 3 day dose of OODINEX. Multi-day dosage achieves exceptional results whilst causing minimal distress to your fish. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of OODINEX to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

For freshwater aquariums we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using OODINEX.

Unlike most marine treatments, OODINEX is safe to use in aquariums with invertebrates such as sea anemones, corals and crustaceans, there is no need to remove these from your aquarium. If you do not keep inverts in your aquarium then use TRIMARIN to treat your fish: TRIMARIN treats a wider range of symptoms / conditions in non-invert aquariums.

There are several key factors that require attention to keep your marine fish healthy

  1. Constant water conditions: water quality should be checked regularly as bad water quality is the primary cause of disease. Regular water changes should be carried out.
  2. Feed a diet that contains varied nutrition and is low in phosphates.
  3. New fish should be quarantined until you are sure that they are not infected.
  4. Regularly check / add calcium levels, trace elements and vitamin supplies, these are important for marine fish.
  5. Keeping a marine aquarium of more than 200 litres (45 gallons) is preferable.
    A marine aquarium should ideally contain live rock.
  6. Make sure that your aquarium is correctly stocked (avoid overstocking).
  7. Regularly renew the contents of your filter.
    Run an effective and correctly sized protein skimmer.
  8. Aquariums containing invertebrates have specific lighting needs.
  9. Algae consuming hermit crabs and snails are a very beneficial addition for a marine aquarium.
WIDE RANGE MARINE TREATMENT (NON-INVERT)
  • Contains copper, do not overdose!
  • Do not use in aquariums containing invertebrates!
  • For use in marine aquariums only;
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For use in marine aquariums only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Disease diagnosis is the first step towards successful and rapid disease cure. Most fish diseases are highly contagious and spread quickly in aquarium conditions, so prompt diagnosis and treatment is advised. There are some ‘early warning signals’ which should be watched for as these can indicate the onset of a disease.

Skin
The skin is the first line of defence and as such it is often the first to show signs of attack from infection. Any changes in skin colour or appearance should be closely watched for.

Fins
Watch your fish’s fins. Fins which are held close to the body signal an illness, particularly on live bearing fish.

Swimming behaviour
Unusual or sluggish swimming behaviour can indicate the onset of a disease.

TRIMARIN treats the organisms responsible for a wide range of marine fish diseases and symptoms. However, as the symptoms of a disease are often similar, it is not always possible to determine exactly what disease your fish have. Luckily TRIMARIN’s wide range action means the danger of choosing the wrong treatment is virtually eliminated.

A list of specific disease organisms and conditions that TRIMARIN treats:

  • Oodinium: fine whitish / yellow spots or ‘salt and pepper’ coating can be seen, especially on the fins. The spots can give a ‘hazy gold’ appearance. Fish may ‘rub and scratch’ against hard objects and show rapid gill movement (difficulty breathing). Slime may cover the body. This is common for tangs and clownfish;
  • Marine whitespot: white spots on the body and fins of your fish. Your fish may try to ‘rub and scratch’ against hard objects such as aquarium decor;
  • Fungus: white or slightly off-white fluffy growths on the fins and body of your fish. Often found on wounds or broken skin, where the mucus layer has been broken, a classic secondary infection;
  • Finrot: the fins of your fish appear ragged and sore, frayed or torn;
  • Dropsy: your fish appear swollen with scales / fins protruding from the skin. Red areas often visible at the base of raised scales. Bases of fins and around anus appears red or bloodshot. Eyes may protrude from body;
  • Wasting disease: symptoms can include some or all of the following: weight loss, ulcers, popeye, listlessness, swollen belly, sore skin patches, loss of appetite, ‘wasted’ appearance;
  • Nodule disease: a few small white spots (especially on the fins) can be seen which can develop into large cabbage like tumours (giant cells);
  • Gill worms: your fish have difficulty breathing, gasp for air at the surface, may lose weight and scrape open gill cover against hard objects;
  • Seahorse disease: your seahorses (Hippocampus) display white nodules / deposits on their skin, lose weight and become deformed. The pouch can become diseased reducing the likelihood of healthy young developing.


Some diseases are very difficult to diagnose or can be diagnosed incorrectly. For example, fungus may result from another problem such as finrot. Therefore, it is important to treat the root of the problem (finrot) as well as the resulting secondary infection (fungus). As TRIMARIN treats many diseases you have a very good chance of treating the root problem and improving your fish’s health. In some cases it is more effective to keep an eye out for a variety of symptoms which fish tend to exhibit when they are infected.

The symptoms

  • Shaking of the head;
  • Lying near the water surface;
  • Shimmying (body rocking);
  • Cloudy eyes;
  • Slimy skin / red skin inflammations;
  • Skin patchiness / discolouration;
  • Bloody patches / spots;
  • Open wounds / bleeding skin;
  • Rough scales / scale loss;
  • Mucus patches;
  • Breathing difficulty;
  • Rapid gill movement.


TRIMARIN treats a wide range of infections characterised by the above symptoms. These infections are often very contagious and can easily spread to healthy fish. The sooner you treat your fish, the better their chance of recovery.

  • You can use TRIMARIN to treat all marine fish. 
  • Do not use TRIMARIN with invertebrates!
  • Do not use TRIMARIN with tropical or coldwater fish and take care not to overdose with sensitive fish!

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of TRIMARIN. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using TRIMARIN.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using TRIMARIN. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a standard 3 day dose of TRIMARIN. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of TRIMARIN to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

For freshwater aquariums we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness.

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using TRIMARIN.

TRIMARIN must not be used in aquariums containing invertebrates such as sea anemones, corals and crustaceans. These must be removed from your aquarium before using TRIMARIN. To treat disease in an aquarium containing invertebrates, use OODINEX. OODINEX treats a narrower spectrum of diseases in marine fish, but is safe to use in aquariums containing invertebrates.

ANTI ALGAE TREATMENT
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • The product may discolour the water;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For use in freshwater aquariums only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

A small amount of the ‘right’ algae is natural in an aquarium and can even be beneficial for your fish. Temporary blooms can occur – especially in new aquariums – and they often go of their own accord. Algae blooms can die off when their nutrient supply is exhausted. The resulting dead algae should be removed before it causes poor water quality as a result of rotting. However, it is the persistent and excessive algae growth that poses problems. Excessive algae looks unsightly by attaching to the glass and decor and impeding your view of the fish and plants. It can also affect the water quality, causing your fish to suffer gill irritation. Excessive algae growth can pose a threat to aquarium plants, as it can settle on the leaves and reduce their ability to photosynthesize.

Excessive algae growth
Excessive algae growth is easy to spot with the naked eye and can take many forms. Most algae are either slimy, hair- or thread-like, powdery or suspended in the water. They are usually either green or reddish / brown in colour. Algae growth usually begins with a thin brown film of algae covering the whole aquarium. If this is left untreated, a bloom of free floating algae cells may develop, leading to dark green slimy sheets covering plants, decor and substrate.

A list of specific disease organisms and conditions that PROTALON 707 treats:

  • Filamentous algae;
  • Slime algae (covers everything with a green, jelly like material);
  • Beard / hair algae (tufts from black to green);
  • Brown slime algae / black algae;
  • Blue-green algae (not real algae, but responds to PROTALON 707);
  • Suspended algae (causes green water in aquarium);
  • Green algae (harmless in small quantities – can be healthy – uses up excess nutrients);


PROTALON 707 also treats most transitional forms of algae. There are over 25,000 species!

  • You can use PROTALON 707 in freshwater aquariums with ornamental fish.
  • When dosed correctly under normal conditions, the components of PROTALON 707 work slowly and are safe for fish and plants. At first your water may become slightly cloudy, but this is harmless to fish and plants and it will disappear within a couple of hours.

Algae removal
In extreme cases – more algae than plants – remove as much algae as possible from your aquarium by hand. Rotting material is not good for your water quality or for your fish.

CO2 and plant food
Turn off your CO2-installation and do not add any plant food/fertilisers as these also stimulate algae growth.

Aquatic snails
PROTALON 707 may kill aquatic snails. Remove them before starting the treatment.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of PROTALON 707. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using PROTALON 707.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so. If you wish to use another treatment straight after using PROTALON 707, you can remove all PROTALON 707 components by filtering over fresh active carbon.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using PROTALON 707. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a 7 day treatment plan of PROTALON 707 over a 1 week period: dose on day 1 (bottle A) & 2 (bottle A) & 3 (bottle A + B) according to the calculations and skip day 4 & 5. Then on day 6 (bottle A + B) & 7 (bottle A), dose the calculated dosage. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of PROTALON 707 to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).
  3. After the treatment, the remaining solution in bottle B can be used to aid your plants / suppress algae: once every 2 weeks (10 drops per 100 litres).


In very extreme cases – more algae than plants – the cure must be repeated after 14 days.

After the treatment, the remaining solution in bottle B can be used to aid your plants / suppress algae: once every 2 weeks (10 drops per 100 litres). In very extreme cases (more algae than plants) the cure must be repeated after 14 days. In case of no or unsatisfactory results, change 50% water twice without a chlorinator or metal binders. In case of complications of an unknown nature, immediately change the water partially and contact your specialist dealer. The product will biodegrade. Do you want to remove the active substances quickly, then we recommend filtering over fresh activated carbon.

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using PROTALON 707.

There are many causes of algae growth in aquariums. The main causes of algae growth are biological and one of the biggest problems many aquarists have to deal with is trying to control these biological causes.

More specifically, algae flourish on a diet of nitrates and phosphates and light of the right spectrum. However, numerous other factors affect algae growth and it is almost impossible to be certain of the exact cause of an algae problem. Therefore, the best action is to try and maintain a good biological balance in your aquarium. This will reduce the likelihood of algae growth and to keep algae and their annoying side effects at bay.

Achieving a good biological balance is more likely to result when you have the following:

A dense growth of healthy aquarium plants;

  1. Sufficient light (check wattage and time);
  2. A stock of fish suitable for the environment;
  3. Regular refreshment of water (approx. 20 to 25% – refer to a specialist aquarium guide);
  4. Discussion of your problems with your dealer (who should be happy to give you advice).

PROTALON 707 is a unique two bottle treatment. The two bottles work together to provide you with an effective algicide and a plant boost in one treatment. At the same time, PROTALON 707 rids cloudy water caused by algae blooms and helps prevent the return of algae.

The components of PROTALON 707 work slowly and in harmony, therefore the danger of mistreating the aquarium water, with all the adverse consequences this entails, has been eliminated. PROTALON 707 bottles A and B work together to achieve a healthy and algae-free aquarium.

Depending on the algae species and the composition of the water, the process of ‘algae -removal’ takes within two to six weeks. However, you will begin to notice the effect within a few days.

When dosed correctly under normal conditions, the components of PROTALON 707 work slowly and are well tolerated by ornamental fish and plants in freshwater aquariums. At first your water may become slightly cloudy, but this is harmless to fish and plants and it will disappear within a couple of hours.

When treating beard algae, a small transparent circle may develop in the leaves of your plants. This is nothing to worry about and within three to four days you will suddenly notice that your plants are unusually clean and vibrant. There will be no side-effects, in fact, you will see your vegetation proliferate.

AQUATIC SNAIL TREATMENT
  • Contains copper, do not overdose!
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For use in freshwater aquariums only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

If snails can be seen in the aquarium, on the glass or in the gravel, then GASTROPEX should be used. Snails are relatively common in aquariums and in small quantities pose few problems. However, they pollute water and become a serious nuisance, so take action sooner rather than later. When you have a snail epidemic, removing them by hand again and again becomes a time-consuming chore. Total removal of all snails is nearly impossible and usually the epidemic returns. Use GASTROPEX to eliminate all aquatic snails including those hidden in the sand, gravel, plants and decorations.

Snail epidemic
It is strongly advised to remove as many snails as you can by hand before or just after the treatment. If there is a very large snail die-off, the dead snails will rot and pollute the aquarium water. This in turn may harm your fish and plants. Syphoning your gravel to remove the dead snails buried in it is also advisable (for example, the Malayan live-bearing snail abounds in substrate).

  • GASTROPEX eliminates snails from the aquarium.
  • You can use GASTROPEX in tropical and coldwater aquariums.


Snails are not essential for maintaining a healthy aquarium, although some people like to keep them as an ornamental feature. However, snails can transmit diseases to your fish, as they are hosts for a range of parasites. They consume and ruin aquatic plants and can look unsightly. In addition, they reproduce at an alarming rate and can take over your aquarium in a short period of time. Large quantities of decomposing snail waste pollutes the water, which is bad for your fish and plants. In aquariums which are used for breeding, snails pose a problem as they eat fish eggs.

  • You can use GASTROPEX to eliminate snails in freshwater aquariums.
  • Remove as many snails as possible from the aquarium before treatment!

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of GASTROPEX. Keep filters running day and night. After using GASTROPEX it is advisable to install a newly grafted filter in your aquarium.

Overdosing
Do not overdose GASTROPEX! Please follow the dosing instructions carefully!

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so. If you wish to use another treatment straight after using GASTROPEX, you can remove all GASTROPEX components by filtering over fresh active carbon. If you experience many problems at once (such as fish disease, algae and snails in the same aquarium), treat the most severe problem first as opposed to treating all three simultaneously.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using GASTROPEX. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat snails, hydra, bacterial blooms and other infusoria related blooms, use a standard 3 day dose of GASTROPEX. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of GASTROPEX to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using GASTROPEX.

Yes! GASTROPEX has several other uses:

  • Combats infusoria blooms;
  • Clears cloudy water caused by bacterial blooms (common in new aquarium setups): bacterial blooms can be dangerous to fish (high levels of organic pollution);
  • Combats Hydra: freshwater Hydra anchor to any submerged surface in your aquarium and can rapidly regenerate to epidemic proportions. Hydra pose a threat to small fish and fry and can appear unsightly. They are recognisable by the stalk (anchor) and several tentacles (to catch prey by stinging). Hydra can grow up to two centimetres in length, but are capable of contracting themselves.

You may notice a flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of GASTROPEX. This can form under certain conditions, because GASTROPEX contains no artificial preservatives. The sediment is a natural compound, is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of GASTROPEX. The sediment dissolves harmlessly in you aquarium.

FISH HEALTH BOOSTER
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Fish do not just need extra care during illness, recovery or quarantine, they need a level of general care. This care should be aimed at maximising your fish’s resistance against infections, parasites, injuries and disease. A daily dosage with eSHa OPTIMA will optimise your aquarium water and your fish’s condition will improve. eSHa OPTIMA will also help reduce the number of fish that would otherwise die because of disease.

eSHa OPTIMA has many uses:

  1. Strengthens and supports your fish’s natural immune defence against bacteria, parasites and disease;
  2. Reduces fish stress and enhances fish development;
  3. Speeds up a full recovery from illness;
  4. Strengthens bones and develops muscles;
  5. Helps fish display their natural vibrant and vivid colours;
  6. Helps young fish to grow healthy and colourful;
  7. Helps newly purchased fish recover from their weakened condition (a result of transportation);
  8. Increases reproductive activity and aids spawning / release of eggs.
  • You can use eSHa OPTIMA with tropical and coldwater fish.
  • Do not use eSHa OPTIMA with marine fish! 
  • eSHa OPTIMA is very well tolerated by fish, plants and filters. 


eSHa OPTIMA poses no threat to fish, plants or filters. eSHa OPTIMA gives excellent results, especially with tropical fish.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of eSHa OPTIMA. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
Overdosing is not recommended, however, eSHa OPTIMA remains non-toxic (under normal conditions) if more than the recommended dose is accidentally added.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using eSHa OPTIMA. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of eSHa OPTIMA to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

eSHa OPTIMA can be used with all other freshwater eSHa products!

You may notice a flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of eSHa OPTIMA. This can form under certain conditions, because eSHa OPTIMA contains no artificial preservatives. The sediment is a natural compound, is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of eSHa OPTIMA. The sediment dissolves harmlessly in you aquarium.

eSHa OPTIMA creates a more natural environment and this often results in increased sexual drive, spawning behaviour and release of eggs. By carrying out your usual water change (20 – 25% should be sufficient) and then administering a standard dose of eSHa OPTIMA, spawning behaviour can be induced.

TRACE ELEMENTS, VITAMINS & MINERALS
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Sufficient quantities are required for creating and maintaining a healthy metabolism in all living creatures. A good vitamin supply is essential to ensure a healthy aquarium. It increases the fishes natural resistance against infections and diseases, especially for fish that do not have natural food supply at their disposal and are fed with so-called ‘complete mono-food’.

Weekly use of MINAROLL provides fish with sufficient quantities of important vitamins, minerals and trace elements which may be missing from your aquarium. Using MINAROLL is beneficial for several reasons:

Recovery from disease or after fighting
Fish require more vitamins, minerals and trace elements when fighting or recovering from disease. This results from the increased cell functions and activity associated with cell defence. MINAROLL increases resistance against diseases by increasing the immune response. By stabilising the vitamin reserve, the danger to your fish from damaging micro-organisms is lessened.

Reducing stress
Detrimental environmental circumstances such as poor water quality, transportation, etc. mean that fish are often damaged in such a way that renders normal vitamin supply insufficient.

Increased cell activity
Increased cell activity can occur during the spawning / breeding season or whenever fish are required to generate extra biological exertion (includes periods of fast growth and high consumption). MINAROLL provides extra vitamins, minerals and trace elements to compensate for incurred vitamin depletion

Deficiency
A-vitaminosis develops through insufficient biosynthesis (a direct decline of condition signifies A-vitaminosis). This can result from of the use of medication (i.e. anti-biotics, sulfanilamides, etc.) or a lack of variation in diet.

General maintenance
MINAROLL can also be effective as a general supplement to maintain good, healthy fish condition. Healthy fish quickly eliminate damaging bacteria and other micro-organisms through their biological defence mechanisms.

In all these cases, much larger quantities of vitamins, minerals and trace elements are required than can be provided by normal food.

  • You can use MINAROLL in freshwater and marine aquariums.
  • MINAROLL is very well tolerated by fish, plants and filters. 

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of MINAROLL. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
Overdosing is not recommended, however, MINAROLL remains non-toxic (under normal conditions) if more than the recommended dose is accidentally added.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using MINAROLL. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a weekly dose of MINAROLL. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of MINAROLL to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

MINAROLL can be used with all other freshwater and marine eSHa products!

You may notice a flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of MINAROLL. This can form under certain conditions, because MINAROLL contains no artificial preservatives. The sediment is a natural compound, is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of MINAROLL. The sediment dissolves harmlessly in you aquarium.

GOLDFISH TONIC
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For ornamental fish only;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Fish do not just need extra care during illness, recovery or quarantine, they need a level of general care. This care should be aimed at maximising your fish’s resistance against infections, parasites, injuries and disease. A weekly dosage with GOLDY will optimise your aquarium water and your fish’s condition will improve. GOLDY will also help reduce the number of fish that would otherwise die because of disease.

GOLDY cleans and freshens your fishes’ water: it clears up waste and helps your fish breath easier by increasing the amount of oxygen and the water will stay healthier and cleaner for a longer period of time. GOLDY also works as a water disinfectant and prevents fungal infections. An added bonus: GOLDY prevents ‘popeye’ with turtles.

GOLDY protects the fishes’ skin layer and gills and activates the resistance of the affected skin layer. GOLDY prevents the origin of fungus and other dangerous pathogens.

 

A summary of GOLDY’s benefits:

  • Helps keep golfish healthy and happy;
  • Prevents stale and mouldy water;
  • Stimulates the fish’s immune system;
  • Neutralises waste;
  • Neutralises heavy metals, chlorine and chloramine in tap water;
  • Protects your fishes’ skin layer and gills;
  • Cleans and freshens the water, which will help heal wounds and prevents diseases;
  • Prevents so called ‘popeye’ with turtles.
  • You can use GOLDY with coldwater fish and goldfish and turtles.
  • GOLDY is well tolerated by fish, plants and filters. 

Filtering
Generally there will be no filter. In case there is a filter, you may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of GOLDY. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using GOLDY.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using GOLDY. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a weekly dose of GOLDY. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of GOLDY to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using GOLDY.

You may notice flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of GOLDY. In this case shake, and if necessary, heat the bottle until lukewarm (40-60º C) before use. Fluctuations in temperature can cause a light turbidity or some sediment, which in spite of heating can persist for a day. The sediment is a natural compound and is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of GOLDY. The sediment dissolves when entering your aquarium.

  • There are many different types of goldfish. Ask your expert shopkeeper for advice on what to keep;
  • A larger tank is better for your fish as they have more room to move and breath;
  • Only fill your goldfish bowl two/thirds full. This lets more air into to the water;
  • Do not put too many fish in the tank. Give them some room to swim and live freely;
  • Avoid placing your tank in direct sunlight or near a radiator or heater.
  • Feed your fish once per day, but do not overfeed (food should be eaten in 5 minutes);
  • Be careful with detergents, wash them out thoroughly, because they are dangerous to fish;
  • Change your water once a week (small filtered tanks, less than 25 litres, 50-30% water change);
  • Add GOLDY after the water is changed. When kept properly, your goldfish can live happily for many years.
FRESHWATER TURTLE TONIC
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Turtles do not just need extra care during illness, convalescence or quarantine, they need a level of general care. This care should be aimed at maximising your turtles’ resistance against infections, injuries and disease. A weekly dosage with TORTUFIT will optimise your aquarium water and your turtles’ condition will improve. 

TORTUFIT keeps the water clean and fresh: it neutralises waste, chlorine and chloramine and helps your freshwater turtle breathe easier by increasing the amount of oxygen. TORTUFIT binds water pollutants and in that way prevents mouldy and stale water. The water will stay healthier and cleaner for longer. On top of that, TORTUFIT has a nourishing and restoring effect, protects the shell and vulnerable skin and activates the resistance of already affected skin.

A summary of TORTUFIT’s benefits:

  • Helps to keep aquatic turtles healthy and happy;
  • Keeps the water clean and fresh for longer;
  • Helps to increase natural resistance;
  • Neutralises chlorine and chloramine in tap
    water;
  • Nourishes and protects the skin and shell;
  • Cleans and soothes eyes in case of ‘pop-eye’.
  • You can use TORTUFIT with freshwater turtles.
  • TORTUFIT is well tolerated by fish, plants and filters. 

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of TORTUFIT. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
It is not recommended to add more than the advised dosage when using TORTUFIT.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using TORTUFIT. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a weekly dose of TORTUFIT. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of TORTUFIT to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

After an illness we strongly recommend that you give your fish a daily dose of eSHa OPTIMA, to keep them in good health. eSHa OPTIMA is a unique combination of the essential components found in tropical rivers, lakes and streams. These components are blended with trace elements, minerals, vitamins and natural growth enhancers to give your fish what they are accustomed to in their natural environment. eSHa OPTIMA stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and speeds up full recovery from illness. 

For marine aquariums we strongly recommend to give your fish a dose of MINAROLL after an illness. MINAROLL is a blend of trace elements, vitamins and minerals, designed to keep your fish in the best of health. It stimulates and supports the natural immune defences and it speeds up a full recovery from illness. It can also be used in freshwater aquariums.

We do not recommend using other eSHa products while using TORTUFIT.

You may notice flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of TORTUFIT. In this case shake, and if necessary, heat the bottle until lukewarm (40-60º C) before use. Fluctuations in temperature can cause a light turbidity or some sediment, which in spite of heating can persist for a day. The sediment is a natural compound and is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of TORTUFIT. The sediment dissolves when entering your aquarium.

Varieties of freshwater turtles
Freshwater turtles have two shells, the carapace and the plastron. The turtle can hide in his shell if there is any danger. There are many different types and varieties of water turtles. The most common are the Cumberland turtle (Trachemys scripta troostii), the yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta) and the false map turtle (Graptemys pseudogeographica).

Healthy guidelines
A freshwater turtle has to have a variety in food and has to eat it well. It would be in the best interest of the turtle to bask every day, if the turtle does not do that, obligate him. The freshwater turtle is not allowed to have weak spots or discolorations. Never clip the nails! This is a sex-characteristic for males. Be sure the freshwater turtles always have clean water and good filtering.

Diseases
Freshwater turtles kept under good circumstances will not get ill very soon. TORTUFIT can tribute to this, together with plenty of basking light, enough exercise and a good nutrition. The most common disease is shell rot. This is caused by dirty water, no lamp, poor nutrition or to a raw basking area. Once the immune system of the freshwater turtle is not good, the chances of a disease is much bigger. That is why it is important to prevent these diseases.

Changing water
Change the water in the paludarium once a week and clean out the tank. Change at least 2/3 of the water and add TORTUFIT. Preferably let the new water, treated with TORTUFIT, stand in a clean bucket for some time before replacing the water, allowing it to reach room temperature.

The paludarium
A standard paludarium for freshwater turtles has to have a minimal length of four times the shell and a width of three times the shell. The water level has to have the length of the shell, so the turtle can rotate in the water. Preferably, the paludarium has to have a basking area in size from 1/3 – 1/4 part of the accommodation. This area should not be too rough because it can damage the plastron. This area should also be heated with a basking bulb so the skin and the shell can dry, which can reduce the bacterial population. The water must be between 18-26°C and the air temperature has to be at least 2 degrees warmer (between 24-28°C). Also ask your expert shopkeeper for advice.

Cleaning the paludarium
Thoroughly clean out the tank and every decor and substrate when you change the water. Use as less as possible, preferably no soaps and detergents. Should you need them, thoroughly wash them out, for even small remains are dangerous to freshwater turtles. Scale and other deposits can easily be removed with pure kitchen vinegar before thorough rinsing. If possible keep a separate bucket and dish washing brush or sponge for you turtles. When doing so, you can be certain that they do not carry traces of detergents which are dangerous to turtles.

PLANT FOOD & NUTRIENTS
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For freshwater aquariums only;
  • The product may discolour the water;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

Many nutrients required for healthy plant growth are not present in the aquarium. An aquarium is an ‘artificial’ environment and therefore differs from the conditions that plants and fish are used to in the wild. PRO-PHYLL is a unique combination of nutrients and fertilisers for freshwater aquatic plants, specially formulated to improve plant growth, colour and condition. PRO-PHYLL provides your plants with the nutrients they need and are used to in the wild and has been specially formulated for easy adsorption by plants through their leaves and roots.

PRO-PHYLL should be used regularly to prevent nutrient depletion and ensure quick growth of healthy green plants. Quick growing green plants such as Nomaphila stricta, Cabomba, Vallisneria, etc. can produce small, pale leaves. Use PRO-PHYLL to promote lush leaves and strong vegetation yet maintain rapid plant growth. PRO-PHYLL can also be used if your plants suffer from poor growth, lack of green leaf colour (chlorophyll), and pale or slimy leaves. PRO-PHYLL effectively raises new or young plants whilst maintaining healthy mature vegetation.

PRO-PHYLL provides your plants with the nutrients they need and are used to in the wild. PRO-PHYLL has been specially formulated for easy absorption by plants through their leaves and roots.

A summary of PRO-PHYLL’s benefits:

  • Quick growth of lush green leaves;
  • Prevents nutrient depletion;
  • Ensures fully formed leaves.
  • You can use PRO-PHYLL in freshwater aquariums with ornamental fish.
  • PRO-PHYLL is very well tolerated by fish, plants and filters.

PRO-PHYLL is safe for use with all freshwater aquatic plants, fish and filter media. It is nitrate free, so it will not encourage algae growth. It is beneficial to dose PRO-PHYLL after completing your regular water change.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of PRO-PHYLL. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
Overdosing is not recommended, however, PRO-PHYLL remains non-toxic (under normal conditions) if more than the recommended dose is accidentally added.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using PRO-PHYLL. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a weekly dose of PRO-PHYLL. It is beneficial to dose PRO-PHYLL after completing your regular water change. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of PRO-PHYLL to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).

PRO-PHYLL can be used with all other eSHa freshwater products!

You may notice a flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of PRO-PHYLL. This can form under certain conditions, because PRO-PHYLL contains no artificial preservatives. The sediment is a natural compound, is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of PRO-PHYLL. The sediment dissolves harmlessly in you aquarium.

A flourishing, planted aquarium looks beautiful and encourages your fish to display their natural colours. Your fish will be happier in a healthy planted aquarium, as many fish are used to plants in the wild. Plants provide them with essential ‘hiding-places’. Plants help maintain a healthy biological balance by producing oxygen and using up carbon dioxide (the bi-product of fish respiration) during photosynthesis. Plants also absorb ammonia / nitrates and help suppress algae, which would otherwise be detrimental for your fish.

Approximately 70% of aquarium plants draw their required nutrients directly out of the water through their leaves. The main function of the roots is to serve as an anchor in the soil. Plants need sufficient light (approx. 2 watt/dm2), minerals and salts to grow properly. The growth of plants is dependent on what nutrients are available and the lack of one or more nutrients leads to pale colours, insufficient leaf development and general poor health. Most plants need the same growth materials in similar proportions and PRO-PHYLL provides a comprehensive package of nutrients for a wide range of aquatic plants.

PLANT GROWTH BOOSTER
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • This product may stain if spilt;
  • Keep out of reach of children and pets;
  • Do not use with animals that are intended for consumption;
  • Store bottle and leaflet in original packaging;
  • For freshwater aquariums only;
  • The product may discolour the water;
  • Keep away from cuts, eyes and other sensitive areas;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

If there are not enough available nutrients, plants can not flourish. A number of areas require attention for successful plant growth:

  • Light levels;
  • Soil type;
  • Flow & circulation;
  • CO2 levels;
  • Non-plant eating fish;
  • Frequent trimming of plants;
  • Calcium (hardness needs to be 4-10°GH);
  • Nutrient levels (specifically: iron, magnesium, calcium);


In addition, we recommend using CRYPTO-PLUS to enhance plant growth and colour. It can also be used to prevent and stabilise the following ailments:

  • The dreaded ‘slimy leaf disease’ (in Cryptocoryne species);
  • ‘Leaf-hole’ disease.

CRYPTO-PLUS works by stimulating the internal osmosis process and enhancing local transport of nutrients through plant cells and leaf veins. It also helps to improve photosynthesis. In effect it accelerates the biological processes, therefore boosting the levels of available nutrients, light and CO2 that your plants absorb.

For the hobbyist this means a significant increase in the abundant growth, colour and health of aquatic plants. Under the right conditions, CRYPTO-PLUS will work better than a CO2 system / fertilizer combination. In addition, it will enhance the colour of your plants more than a CO2 system by increasing the level of nutrients that are utilised.

A summary of CRYPTO-PLUS’s benefits (visible in a matter of days):

  • A significant increase in plant growth, colour and health;
  • Wide, healthy branching of plant stems;
  • The formation of new layers and leaves;
  • The formation of well developed leaves with deep, lustrous colours;
  • Dull leaf surfaces brighten (CRYPTO-PLUS removes precipitation in the pores of the leaves).


CRYPTOPLUS also benefits your plants by:

  • Preventing transparent bruised patches;
  • Resolving ‘cucumber shape’;
  • Helping to prevent ‘collapsing of leaves’;
  • Preventing ragged edges;
  • Resolving slow, disappointing growth.


As well as enhancing plant growth and colour, this product can also be used to prevent and stabilise the following ailments:

  • The dreaded ‘slimy leaf disease’ (in Cryptocoryne species);
  • ‘Leaf-hole’ disease.


Your plants will flurish like never before with CRYPTO-PLUS!

  • CRYPTO-PLUS can be used with all aquatic plants;
  • You can use CRYPTO-PLUS in freshwater aquariums;
  • CRYPTO-PLUS is very well tolerated by fish, plants and filters.


CRYPTO-PLUS will have the best results with Cryptocoryne, Stratiotes, Marsilea, Acorus and other ‘redleaf’ plants in freshwater aquaria. Their shapes and colours mean they have an important place amongst aquatic plants, but tending them can prove complicated and often unsuccessful. CRYPTO-PLUS helps to solve any problems you may encounter. If used weekly it can help prevent problems before they arise.

CRYPTO-PLUS is safe for use with all freshwater aquatic plants, fish and filter media. It is nitrate free and consequently will not encourage algae growth. It is beneficial to dose CRYPTO-PLUS after completing your regular water change.

Filtering
You may continue to filter over non-adsorbing materials such as filter-wool, sand, gravel, etc. Always remove chemical ‘active’ filter media such as (fresh) activated carbon, UV (lights), oxidisers, resins and protein skimmers, as these can have a negative influence on the action of CRYPTO-PLUS. Keep filters running day and night.

Overdosing
Overdosing is not recommended, however, CRYPTO-PLUS remains non-toxic (under normal conditions) if more than the recommended dose is accidentally added.

Other treatments (from other manufacturers)
Never combine treatments unless the manufacturer specifically states that it is safe to do so.

It is generally not necessary to do a water change before using CRYPTO-PLUS. However, there are a few exceptions where a partial water change should be carried out before treating the aquarium:

  1. In the case of poor water quality. Regular testing with eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST can identify water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed;
  2. If you are close to your regular water change;
  3. If using any waterconditioners (see general questions: how can I safely add tap water when doing a water change, without adding (too much) water conditioner?);
  4. If you have just used or are using another treatment: 2 x 40% water changes should be carried out over a period of two days + appropriate filtering (i.e. carbon).


Replacing some of the water during or after treatment effectively removes some of the treatment. Compensate by adding a proportional amount of medication after a water change.

  1. To treat the disease organisms and conditions, use a weekly dose of CRYPTO-PLUS. It is beneficial to dose CRYPTO-PLUS after completing your regular water change. Calculate the volume of your aquarium (only the area occupied by water). You can use the Dosage Calculator to calculate the correct dosage.
  2. Add drops of CRYPTO-PLUS to your aquarium by holding the bottle upside down and squeezing the pipette (20 drops = 1 ml).


Extended Dosage

For damaged plants and slow growing plants:
Day 1: 20 drops / 100 litres
Day 2: no dosage
Day 3: 20 drops / 100 litres

Prolonged dosage
For holes in leaves and slimy leaf diseases / bruised patches:
Day 1: 20 drops / 100 litres
Day 2: no dosage
Day 3: 40 drops / 100 litres
Day 4: no dosage
Day 5: 20 drops / 100 litres

CRYPTO-PLUS can be used with all other freshwater eSHa products!

You may notice a flake-like sediment forming in your bottle of CRYPTO-PLUS. This can form under certain conditions, because CRYPTO-PLUS contains no artificial preservatives. The sediment is a natural compound, is totally harmless and will not affect the performance of CRYPTO-PLUS. The sediment dissolves harmlessly in you aquarium.

A flourishing, planted aquarium looks beautiful and encourages your fish to display their natural colours. Your fish will be happier in a healthy planted aquarium, as many fish are used to plants in the wild. Plants provide them with essential ‘hiding-places’. Plants help maintain a healthy biological balance by producing oxygen and using up carbon dioxide (the bi-product of fish respiration) during photosynthesis. Plants also absorb ammonia / nitrates and help suppress algae, which would otherwise be detrimental for your fish.

Approximately 70% of aquarium plants draw their required nutrients directly out of the water through their leaves. The main function of the roots is to serve as an anchor in the soil. Plants need sufficient light (approx. 2 watt/dm2), minerals and salts to grow properly. The growth of plants is dependent on what nutrients are available and the lack of one or more nutrients leads to pale colours, insufficient leaf development and general poor health. Most plants need the same growth materials in similar proportions and PRO-PHYLL provides a comprehensive package of nutrients for a wide range of aquatic plants.

TEST STRIP: 6 IN 1
  • Always read the leaflet before use;
  • Make sure the seal on the lid is intact before first use;
  • Never hold the strips under running water;
  • Test strips are sensitive; close the container immediately after taking out a test strip;
  • Store the container with strips in a dry and cool place;
  • Always dip the test strips directly and vertically in the water;
  • Do not touch the test squares with your fingers;
  • Always store the container in the original packaging;
  • If you test a sample of aquarium or pond water in a glass or cup, make sure that it’s completely clean: substances left behind in the glass, such as detergents, can influence the test results;
  • This information is general product information, not to be mistaken for the instruction leaflet. No rights can be derived from this F.A.Q.!

If you have problems with the water quality it’s a good idea to consult your aquarium specialist, who is usually glad to be of help. However, you don’t have to be a chemist to make sure your aquarium meets the necessary basic requirements for remaining healthy and in good shape. If you regularly test the water it’s easier for you to take proper care of the fish and plants and to keep disaster at a distance. Check the water quality on a regular basis, once every 2 to 3 weeks; for new aquaria or ponds once a week for 4 weeks. If you have problems with the water quality, you should test more often. We also recommend to always check the quality of the water you add.

The water quality is determined by a a lot of factors, but the most important factors are: plants, fish, aquarium volume, pond size and depth, bottom layer of sediment etc. as well as external factors such as overfeeding, type of water added, the filter used, acid rain, duration and amount of lighting, sunlight, etc. There rarely is a stable and completely natural balanced system. Aquaria and ponds are set up by people whom also choose the plants and fish, therefore the system has not developed naturally and spontaneously. Some plants and fish are very adaptable, others are more sensitive to their environment and need very stable and optimal water quality. Therefore, you sometimes need to give your aquarium or pond a helping hand.

Regular use of eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST allows you to spot water quality problems in time to take corrective action when needed. This is your best guarantee for having a beautiful aquarium or pond full of healthy active fish and thriving plants and, most importantly, keeping it this way. You can monitor 6 values, which are crucial for good water quality: pH (acidity), KH (carbonate hardness), GH (general hardness), NO2 (nitrite), NO3 (nitrate) and Cl2 (chlorine). Get more pleasure out of your aquarium or pond and save yourself worry, frustration and even despair. 

  • You can use eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST in all aquariums and ponds;

There are no precautions needed to use eSHa AQUA-QUICK-TEST. 

Acidity / pH of the water
pH is measured on a scale of 0 to 14: a value of 7 is neutral. If the pH is lower than 7, then the water is acidic. If the pH is higher than 7, the water is alkaline. The pH in aquaria and ponds normally fluctuates during the day/night cycle. These changes in pH are caused by changes in CO2 (carbon dioxide) concentration (due to plant growth). During daylight hours the pH rises only to fall back to its original value during the night.

The pH is very important for all living organisms in aquaria and ponds. Its importance is increased even more due to the way pH influences and interacts with other factors. For example:

  • The KH determines how easily the pH can change. A low level of KH allows the pH to fluctuate more quickly and over a wider range;
  • Higher pH values cause harmless ammonium (NH4+) to change into harmful ammonia (NH3);
  • If your pH is over 7.8, check your ammonia levels regularly using an ammonia test kit. Adjusting the pH should always be done gradually: a quick increase or decrease is harmful.


Favourable pH value for household aquaria: 6.8 to 7.5.

Favourable pH value for ponds: 7.0 to 8.0.

pH inaccuracies in low KH conditions
The accuracy of the pH test can be affected in low KH conditions (low buffering capacity). This is because the levels of pH determining components (acid and alkaline) are not present in sufficient quantities for the pH test to register accurately. If KH registers at 4°dH or lower the pH test may not be accurate. However, all the other tests on the strip remain accurate. Low KH can result in major pH fluctuations which can be life threatening for aquarium fish. Therefore, a KH of 4°dH or higher is recommended. Tap water of 4°dH or lower is uncommon in most areas.

Measurement
Compare the colour of the test strip with the reference colour chart. If the colour of the test strip is in between two reference colours, the pH value is also intermediate. A test colour between 7.2 and 7.6 indicates a pH of 7.4 (higher or lower depending on colour intensity).

For aquaria and ponds both general hardness and carbonate hardness are important. From a biological point of view, general hardness is the most important. Within certain limits, fish and plants can adapt to changes in GH. Carbonate hardness (KH) is very important biochemically; it has a direct influence on pH and CO2.

GH – General Hardness
GH is the sum of all the substances dissolved in water which determine the hardness or softness of the water: These are salts of calcium and magnesium such as sulfates, carbonates, chlorides, etc.

GH is what is meant when fish or plants are said to prefer hard or soft water. The reason for this is that GH influences cell membranes, kidney function, growth, transport of essential salts, incorporation of minerals and trace elements, osmotic pressure, etc.

Be careful with materials (such as decorative rocks) which release calcium and magnesium salts into the water. They make the water hard and keep it that way. Adding a lot of tap water or rain water or replacing part of the water often changes the GH value.

Favourable values in household aquaria are 6° to 12° GH and in garden ponds 7° to 14° GH.
If too low: add hard water or a KH-raiser.
If too high: dilute with soft water, use ion exchange filter or adsorption filter.

Measurement

  • None of the GH test squares are purple: GH lower than 6.
  • One of three GH test squares purple: GH more than 7.
  • Two of three GH test squares purple: GH more than 14.
  • Three of three GH test squares purple: GH more than 21.


A test square that is partially coloured indicates an intermediate value. One fully coloured square plus a second square that is faintly or partially coloured indicates a GH of about 10.

For aquaria and ponds both general hardness and carbonate hardness are important. From a biological point of view, general hardness is the most important. Within certain limits, fish and plants can adapt to changes in GH. Carbonate hardness (KH) is very important biochemically; it has a direct influence on pH and CO2.

KH – Carbonate hardness (buffering capacity)
KH contributes to the general hardness of water and is made up of salts of carbonate and bicarbonate. Because of its ability to bind acids in water, KH is responsible for the buffering capacity of water with respect to acids.

Important: KH has a direct influence on the acidity (pH) and on the carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration which is also important for plants.

The KH level tends to decrease with time due to biological processes which remove calcium carbonate from the water. If the KH level falls to 4° KH or lower, the plant and animal community in the aquarium will begin to suffer. Too little KH leads to erratic and unstable pH values which is harmful.

Tip: In newly established ponds the KH value is often too low. Good (buffer) values for household aquaria are 4° to 10° KH and in ponds 6° to 12° KH.

KH values which are too low or too high can cause problems with plants and fish.
If KH is too low: add hard water or a KH-raiser.
If KH is too high: add soft water, filter over peat or other products which lower KH.

Measurement
Compare the colour of the KH test square with the reference colour chart on the tube. An intermediate colour in a test square indicates an intermediate value. A colour between 10 and 15 for example means a KH value of 12 to 13 (less or more depending on the colour intensity).

Recycling of waste products or biological stability
In nature, biological waste products of fishes and plants including dead plant fragments and food remains are broken down and recycled. Basically it’s like a compost heap in which micro-organisms break down waste products. The compost which is the end result can again be used as a nutrient for plants. In the aquarium, waste products and their various intermediates are first converted into nitrite which is finally converted into nitrate. This conversion is carried out by various kinds of micro-organisms. The level of nitrite and nitrate tells us something about the level of bacterial activity. They tell us whether the various steps in the biological cycle are working properly, and as a result whether you will have a well balanced aquarium or pond in which plants and fish grow well.

NO2 – Nitrite
Nitrite is produced when certain micro-organisms (nitrifying bacteria) break down waste products produced by fish, food remains, etc. Nitrite is toxic for fish. Other kinds of bacteria are able to convert nitrite, or NO2, into the much less harmful nitrate, or NO3. By measuring the level of NO2 we can actually check to see if there are enough ‘good bacteria’ present to convert the NO2 into NO3 just as quickly as the NO2 is formed. These good bacteria are mostly found in the filter and substrate and are sensitive to changes in acidity (pH and carbonate hardness!) and low oxygen levels (pumps, filters!) and especially sensitive to antibiotics and toxic substances. A high NO2 level means that the bacterial community is not functioning well. NO2 is less harmful in harder water (high values of GH and KH). Favourable NO2 level is less than 0.3 mg/l.

If the NO2 level is too high, quickly change the water. After changing water, measure NO2 again. Try to discover the cause and add nitrifying bacteria if possible. Nitrifying bacteria reproduce, grow and recover slowly.

Causes of high NO2 levels:

  • Too much waste material present;
  • Overfeeding;
  • Dead fish;
  • Not enough nitrifying bacteria;
  • Death of nitrifying bacteria;
  • Sudden changes in pH (check KH);
  • Antibiotics;
  • Unsuitable filter or filter material;
  • Not enough oxygen in water (check pumps);
  • Newly installed aquarium or pond.


Measurement

Compare the colour of the NO2 test square with the reference colour chart.
A pink colouring of the test square means that NO2 is too high. Depending on the water’s own natural colour, this indicates a value of 0.3 to 0.5 mg/l. If the colour is more intense than 0.5 mg/l. action should be taken.

NO3 – Nitrate
The last step in the process of breaking down waste products. In nature, this marks the last step in the cycle. Because the micro-organisms have done their useful work, the end product, nitrate, can now be utilized by plants. Within certain limits nitrate is not harmful to fish and is an excellent nutrient for (terrestrial) plants.

Aquatic plants use nitrate only in small amounts, however, algae thrive on it. Usually, in aquaria and ponds, more nitrate is produced than can be taken up by (water) plants. The simplest solution is to regularly replace the water before the nitrate level rises too much:
In aquaria: replace a minimum of 20 to 25 % per month.
In ponds: at temperatures above 15 °C, 10 to 20 % per month.

Favourable levels
Preferably under 25 mg/l (to limit algal growth). For fish, levels between 50 and 100 mg/l are acceptable. At higher levels problems will occur in the long term. The best remedy is regularly replacing the water. Be aware that tap water often contains high levels of nitrate, so test your tap water regularly for nitrate. The nitrate level can vary quite a bit from day to day, depending upon which pumping station is supplying your area with tap water. Causes of high levels include: too many fish, not enough plants or unhealthy plants, not changing water often enough, poor conditions for nitrifying bacteria (if levels too high replace water), more plants, less fish, do not overfeed, filter over materials which adsorb nitrate.

Measurement
Compare the colour of the test square with the reference colour chart. An intermediate colour on an NO3 test square indicates an intermediate value. A colour between 10 and 25 means that NO3 is around 20 mg/l (less or more depending upon colour intensity).

Cl2 – Chlorine
Chlorine is a disinfectant for tap water and dangerous for fish. Filter tap water over fresh activated carbon or treat tap water to remove chlorine and make tap water fish friendly.

Measurement
Compare the Cl2 colour of the test square with the reference colour chart. A colour from 0.8 on the test square indicates chlorine in your tapwater or aquariumwater.